Beer is as old as pizza
in human History.
Maybe because both came from almost the same ingredients used to make bread. Historians
believe that the ancient Mesopotamians and Sumerians were making beer as early
as 6.000 years BC. Although the drink may have been different from today's beer
it would be recognizable. The Egyptians and Chinese have also made beer for
centuries, as well
as the pre-Columbian civilizations in America, but they used corn instead of
barley. In ancient Babylon, women were in charge of beer making. They were also
priestesses and beer was used in many religious ceremonies.
Beer was popular among Romans and Greeks until the wine availability increased.
In Rome, wine was believed to be the ambrosia from the god Bacchus soon beer
became known as a barbarian drink and lost popularity. Beer was then brewed
only in far away areas were wine was rare.
In the middle ages, monks in Europe were the guardians of literature, science
and the art of beer making. They refined the process near to perfection and
introduced the use of hoops as preservative and flavoring.
But it was only after Louis Pasteur's discovering of microorganism as fermentation
agents that beer assumed today's aspect.
Until that time brewers depended on wild, airborne yeast for fermentation.
Pasteur opened the way to accurate control of the conversion of sugar to
Beer went to America with Christopher Columbus. When he arrived, he noticed
that the natives were making a brew "of maize resembling English
beer". Beer was a main concern in the New World, even for the pilgrims.
It is said they landed in Plymouth Rock, instead of a southern position as
planned, partly because they were out of beer.
Beer continued to grow in popularity until 1920 when the Prohibition took effect. Many breweries went out of business or started making soda
pop. Gangsters sold thousands of litters of clandestine beer at that time.
Later in 1933, Congress passed the 21st Amendment to the
Constitution, which ended the unpopular law. Beer returned to popular
preference quickly after that. President Jimmy Carter legalized home brewing,
ushering in the age of microbreweries, beer hobbyists, and beer snobs.
As you see, beer has been around for many centuries in many different
historical contexts. Next time you have a beer think about this and enjoy this
Some words to help you Entre parenteses a pronúncia aproximada.
Barley (ba:li)=cevada Hoops (ups) = barris Flavoring (fleivorin)= dar sabor ("saborizar") Brewer (bru:er)= cervejeiro Airborne (érborne)= transportado pelo ar Yeast(ii:st)= fermento Maize(meizz)= milho (agora vc sabe de onde vem a marca"Maizena" que é
feita de milho) Middle Ages (midoul eijes) = Idade Média Breweries(brueris)= cervejarias Cheers(xirs)= alegrias ,saúde(usado em brindes)
Answer the questions with "True" or "False"
according to the text.
1- The ancient
civilizations were beer makers.---
2- Women never learned
how to make beer. ---
3- Beer making was a
science in the Middle Ages.---
4- When Columbus arrived
to America, natives already knew beer.---