Fundo Claro
                                
Read the text and answer the questions
There are seven continents on Earth:Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Europe, Asia, North America and South America. All the continents have internal plateaus and are surrounded by sea water. Sometimes Europe and Asia are considered as one continent called Eurasia. Antarctica is the southernmost continent and most of it is inside the Polar Circle. It's surrounded by Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. They are often called Antarctic Ocean, as they surround Antarctica. Antarctic Continent covers 5,500,000 square miles and is the fifth in size in the world. The coast line is about 13,800 miles long.
Around the world there are twelve countries interested in the continent, focused in scientific points and studies. They are: The United States, Russia, Argentina, The United Kingdom, South Africa, New Zealand, Norway, Belgium, Chile, Australia, France and Japan. Antarctica has a circular shape with a peninsula called Palmer Peninsula and two bays: the Ross and the Weddell. The whole continent is covered with ice, which represents 90% of ice on Earth. The temperature is always below freezing. It's dark for six months of the year. In summer the temperature is still below freezing, but some areas along the coast are above freezing for a short time in summer. In winter the temperatures are the lowest in the world reaching more than 70 degrees Celsius negative. 
There are no permanent residents in Antarctica. During summer the population reaches several thousands among scientists, explorers and tourists. During the rest of the year just a few scientists remain there. About natural resources, very little is known because of the many layers of ice that cover the continent. Along the coast there is a variety of animal life including whales, fish, birds and seals. Two kinds of penguin live in Antarctica: the Adelie penguin-the smaller- and the Emperor penguin- that can reach 1 meter tall. The birds include: terns, cape pigeons, petrels, albatrosses and some other sea birds. 
There is evidence of copper, iron, lead, uranium and molybdenum in Antarctica, but none of them are mined. The continent was the last to be discovered. An English explorer, Captain James Cook, sailed around Antarctica between 1772 and 1775. American and British seal hunters arrived in 1821. Charles Wilkes, an American, explored the coast between 1838 and 1840. The Norwegian explorer Ronald Amundsen was the first to reach the South Pole in 1911.Robert F. Scott, a British explorer, arrived a month latter. In 1928 Sir Hubert Wilkins , an Australian, was the first man to fly over Antarctica. 
Today the are some permanent bases in Antarctica where scientists live and make researches about the continent and its importance to global ecology. The ozone hole has grown over Antarctica making the ice melt and sending large icebergs to the sea. If all the ice in Antarctica suddenly melts the sea level around the world will raise about 700 meters, as say scientists, and that would be the destruction of hundreds of cities by the sea. Pollution control is now more important and urgent than never before. If we want to give our grandchildren a place to live, the time to start conservation is now. That is why the Laws about Antarctica use that must be respected by all the countries There are some international organizations concerned about this matter, like Greenpeace for example. They are fighting for a better world with less pollution and more life. We can do our part using non-polluting chemicals and detergents. It's easy to do it!

Some Words to Help

Belgium

Bélgica

Below freezing

Abaixo de zero

Copper

Cobre (metal)

Iron 

Ferro (metal)

Layers

Camadas

Lead 

Chumbo (metal)

Melt 

Derreter

Molybdenum 

Molibdênio (metal raro)

New Zealand 

Nova Zelândia

Norway 

Noruega

Petrel 

Procelária (pássaro marinho)

Plateaus 

Platôs , planaltos

Seals 

Focas

Southernmost 

O mais ao Sul

United Kingdom 

Reino Unido

Whales 

Baleias

 

 • Answer the questions with “True” or “False” according to the text:

1- Most of Antarctica is out of the Antarctic Circle. --

2- There are more than ten Nations interested in Antarctica. --

3- There are parts of Antarctica without ice. --

4- The temperature is always below zero degrees Celsius. --

5- Scientists know a lot about Antarctica natural resources. --

6- There are many people living in Antarctica as permanent residents. --

7- There is evidence of precious metals in Antarctica. --

8- The first man to reach the South Pole was a Norwegian explorer. --

9- There are ways for us help to preserve Antarctica and the environment. --

10- Most of the ice on Earth is in Antarctica. --