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           Verb Tenses in English

Here you have all the verb tenses in English.Have fun!

Aqui estão os tempos verbais em Inglês. Divirta-se!

Obs: sometimes the “continous tense” is called “progressive tense”. Here we use both names because both are correct.

 

Nota:por sugestão de vários estudantes, traduzimos as instruções que agora estão em azul junto ao Inglês.

 Se isto parecer meio complicado tente entender “de verdade” todos os tempos verbais em Português e console-se.


SIMPLE PRESENT ( I DO )
 
We use the simple present to talk about things in general . We are not  thinking only about the    present .
We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly , or that something is  true in general .
It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking :

Usamos o Simple Present para falar de coisas em geral. Não estamos pensando somente no presente.
Usamos para dizer que algo acontece o tempo todo ou repetidamente.
Não é importante se a ação esta acontecendo no momento da fala:

            Examples :

                        The earth goes round the sun

                        Nurses look after patients in hospitals

                        In Britain most of the shops close at 5.30 PM

Remember that we say He , She , It with S .  Don' t  forget the "S "

Lembre-se que dizemos He,She,IT com “S”. Não esqueça do “S”

                        I work in a bank  -  He works in a bank

•We make the negative form adding DON 'T  or DOESN 'T before the main verb

Fazemos o negativo adicionando DON’T ou DOESN’T antes do verbo.

 

• We make the interrogative form adding DO / DOES before the subject

Fazemos o interrogativo adicionando DO/DOES antes do sujeito.

            Examples :

            Affirmative : They work in a bank                     He works in a bank

            Negative :     They don't work in a bank             He doesn't work in a bank

            Interrogative :Do they work in a bank ?            Does he work in a bank ?

            Inter. negative: Don ' t they work in a bank ?    Doesn' t he work in a bank ?


PRESENT CONTINUOUS (I AM DOING)
Tambem chamado Present Progressive.
Formado com  TO BE + MAIN VERB  + ING

We use the present continuous to talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking.

Usamos o Present Continuous para falar sobre algo que esta acontecendo no momento da fala:

        David is driving to work  ( he is in his car now )

            • Other uses (outros usos)

1 - To talk about a temporary action that is not necessarily happening at the time of speaking.

Para falar sobre uma ação temporaria que não esta necessariamente acontecendo no momento da fala:

                        David is taking an English course this semester

                        They are building a new hospital near the park

2 - An action programmed in the future (uma ação programada no futuro)

                        We are going to New York next week

                        David is meeting Jennifer tomorrow night

3 - An action that is repeated frequently (uma ação repetida frequentemente)

                        My neighbor is always playing music in a loud sound

                       She is often buying new clothes

 NOTE :

            Some verbs are not normally used in the  Progressive forms .
            They , in general , indicate a state or  a condition . Here are some of them :

            Alguns verbos não são normalmente usados na forma continua.
             Eles em geral indicam um estado ou condição. Aqui estão alguns deles:

                        Agree ( concordar )                             Hate ( odiar )

                        Believe ( acreditar )                              Have ( ter )

                        Belong  ( pertencer )                             Hear ( ouvir )

                        Disagree ( discordar )                           Hope ( esperar )

                        Forget   ( esquecer )                             Know ( saber )             

                        Like ( gostar )                                       See ( ver )

                        Love ( amar )                                       Seem ( parecer )

                        Need ( precisar )                                  Smell ( cheirar )

                        Prefer ( preferir )                                  Think ( pensar )

                        Remember ( lembrar )                          Understand ( compreender )

 


SIMPLE PAST

 The regular verbs make the past tense adding ED to the infinitive without the   particle TO

Os verbos regulares fazem o passado acrescentado-se ED ao infinitivo sem a particula TO

EXAMPLES :

            TO LIVE                       LIVED   ( morar / morei )

            TO ARRIVE                 ARRIVED ( chegar / cheguei )

            TO LOVE                     LOVED ( amar / amei )

            TO TALK                     TALKED ( falar / falei )

•We make the negative using the auxiliary Did not ( didn ' t ) before the main verb of the sentence.

Fazemos o negativo acrescentando Did NOT (didn’t) antes do verbo da frase.

I lived in London for three months last year                    I didn ' t live in London last year

We arrived in New York yesterday morning                   We didn' t arrive in New York yesterday morning

•We make the interrogative form adding  DID before the subject of the sentence

Fazemos o interrogativo colocando-se Did antes do sujeito da frase.

The contracted forms are normally used in all persons

As formas contraidas são normalmente usadas em todas as pessoas.

Did she pass her examination ?             When did you arrive in New York ?

Did you live in London ?                       How long did you live in London ?

pronoun

affirmative

negative form

contracted negative

I

lived

did not live

didn ' t  live

you

lived

did not live

didn ' t  live

he,she,it

lived

did not live

didn ' t  live

we

lived

did not live

didn ' t  live

you

lived

did not live

didn ' t  live

they

lived

did not live

didn ' t  live

Uses of the Simple past (usos do Simple Past)

We use this tense to talk about actions that happened in a definite time in the past . The time can be :

Usamos este tempo verbal para falar de coisas que aconteceram em um tempo definido no passado. O tempo pode ser:

1 - Specified in the sentence . In general words and expressions meaning time are used in the sentence

Especificado na frase. Em geral palavras e expressões que significam tempo são usadas na frase.

 He left for Australia last night

She made a wonderful cake yesterday

I received a letter from my brother a week ago 

They decided to move to Wyoming today

2 - Suggested by an expression of place ( sugerido por uma expressão de lugar)

 I bought this book in New York

They watched that movie in São Paulo.

• The Simple Past is also used with adverbs of frequency like :
  always , seldom , never , etc .to  indicate an habit in the past.
 
É usado também com advérbios de freqüência para indicar um hábito  no passado.

Veja a pagina Adverbs

 He always drove very fast (Ele sempre dirigiu muito rápido) 

They seldom arrived on time to their classes (Eles raramente chegam a tempo para as aulas)

See also Irregular Verbs


PAST CONTINUOUS   ( I WAS DOING )
Tambem chamado Past Progressive
 It's formed by the PAST of TO BE + MAIN VERB + ING

Formado com Passado de BE + Verbo Principal + ING

•We use the past progressive to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time .
 The action had already begun before this time .

• Usamos o Past Continuous para dizer que alguem estava em meio de fazer algo em certo tempo. 
A ação ja começou antes desse tempo.

In April last year I was living in France ( LIVE )

( Em abril do ano passado eu estava morando na França)

What were you doing at 8:00 o'clock last evening ? ( DO )

(O que você estava fazendo as 8:00h na noite passada?)

•The past progressive doesn't tell us if an action has finished or not , notice :

O Past Progressive (ou Past Continuous) não nos diz se a ação terminou ou não.Veja:

 David was writing the year report Yesterday ( we don't know if he finished it )

(David estava escrevendo o relatorio annual ontem.(não sabemos se ele ja terminou)

MAS:

David wrote the report ( Simple Past ) - ( He began and finished it )

( David escreveu o relatorio( Simple Past) –(ele começou e terminou)

•Other uses

We use the Past Progressive to say that something happened in the middle of another thing :

Usamos o Past Progressive (past continuous) para dizer que alguma coisa aconteceu no mieo de outra coisa:

Tom broke the typewriter when he was typing a letter

Tom quebrou a maquina de escrever enquanto estava digitando.

When I saw Jennifer in the park , she was sitting on the grass and reading a book

Quando vi Jennifer no parque, ela estava sentada na grama lendo um livro.

While I was working in the garden I hurt my back

Enquanto trabalhava no jardim, machuquei as costas.

To say that one thing happened after another thing , we use the Simple Past

Para dizer que alguma coisa aconteceu depois de outra, usamos o Simple Past

Yesterday David was having dinner when the telephone rang . He stopped eating and answered.

Ontem David estava jantando quando o telefone tocou. Ele parou de comer e atendeu.

•Compare these sentences :

Compare estas frases:

 When Tom arrived we were having dinner ( past progressive) -{ we had already started before  Tom arrived }

Quando Tom chegou estávamos jantando (past progressive)- já tínhamos começado antes de Tom chegar)

When Tom arrived , we had dinner ( past simple ) - { Tom arrived and then we had dinner }

Quando Tom chegou nós jantamos (past simple) (Tom chegou e então nós jantamos)

 NOTE :

 Some verbs are not normally used in the  Progressive forms . 
They , in general , indicate a state or a condition .
 Here are the most common:

Alguns verbos não são normalmente usados nas formas Progressive (Continuous).
 Eles em geral indicam um estado ou condição.
 Eis os mais comuns:

            Agree ( concordar )                              Hate ( odiar )

            Believe ( acreditar )                               Have ( ter )

            Belong  ( pertencer )                              Hear ( ouvir )

            Disagree ( discordar )                            Hope ( esperar )

            Forget   ( esquecer )                              Know ( saber )             

            Like ( gostar )                                       See ( ver )

            Love ( amar )                                        Seem ( parecer )

            Need ( precisar )                                   Smell ( cheirar )

            Prefer ( preferir )                                   Think ( pensar )

            Remember ( lembrar )                           Understand ( compreender )


 
PRESENT PERFECT
( I HAVE DONE )

It's formed by :   HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE of main verb

Note : The past participle of verbs , normally ends in -ED ( opened , decided ) except for irregular verbs

O past Participle(particípio passado) dos verbos normalmente termina em ED, exceto para os verbos irregulares.

In negative sentences we use NOT after the auxiliary HAVE.

Em frases negativas usa-se NOT após o  verbo Have

In interrogative sentences the verb HAVE is placed before the subject .In general the

contracted    forms are used .

Em frases interrogatives o verbo Have é colocado antes do sujeito. Em geral usa-se as formas contraídas.

The normal forms of Present Perfect are(as formas normais do Present Perfect são:)

pronoun

affirmative

negative

interrogative

I

   have lived

   have not lived

   have i lived ?

YOU

   have lived

   have not lived

   have you lived ?

HE,SHE,IT

   has lived

   has not lived

   has ( he,she,it) lived?

WE

   have lived

   have not lived

   have we lived ?

YOU

   have lived

   have not lived

   have you lived ?

THEY

   have lived

   have not lived

   have they lived ?

These are the contracted forms( estas são as formas contraidas)

     affirmative

          negative

    interrogative

   I ' ve live

   iIhaven ' t lived

   have I lived ?

   you ' ve lived

   you haven ' t lived

   have you lived ?

   he ' s lived

   he hasn ' t lived

   has he lived ?

   she ' s lived

   she hasn ' t lived

   has she lived ?

   it ' s lived

   it hasn ' t lived

   has it lived ?

   we ' ve lived

   we haven' t lived

   have we lived ?

   you ' ve lived

   you haven ' t lived

   have you lived ?

   they ' ve lived

   they haven ' t lived

   have they lived ?

And do not forget the Iinterrogative-negative (não esqueça o interrogativo-negativo)

          normal form

    contracted form

    have I not lived ?

   haven ' t I lived ?

    have you not lived ?

   haven ' t you lived ?

    has he not lived ?

   hasn 't he lived ?

    has she not lived ?

   hasn ' t she lived ?

    has it not lived ?

   hasn ' t it lived ?

    have we not lived ?

   haven ' t we lived ?

    have you not lived ?

   haven ' t you lived ?

    have they not lived ?

   haven ' t they lived ?

 Uses of this tense (Usos deste tempo verbal)

1 - To talk about a period of time that continues up to the present.

Para falar de um periodo de tempo que continua até o presente)

She 's  lived in New York for ten years ( she still lives there )

Ela tem morado em New York por dez anos (ela ainda mora lá)

Her sister has been working since January ( her sister is still working )

A irmã dela tem trabalhado desde Janeiro (a irmã dela ainda trabalha)    

OBS:este tempo verbal não tem equivalência direta com os tempos verbais em português.
Quando dizemos que trabalhamos em algum lugar ha dez anos usamos:” Eu trabalho aqui ha dez anos” 
 note que “eu trabalho” é o tempo presente e não dá a idéia de período.

Em inglês se diz: “I have worked here for ten years” (tenho trabalhado aqui por dez anos) 
Sabemos que esta forma pode ser usada em português…mas não ha a equivalência gramatical direta “oficialmente”, certo? 

 
     

2 - To talk about something that someone haven ' t done that continues up to the present

Para falar sobre algo que alguem não fez e que continua até o presente.                       

 I ' ve never smoked (Eu nuca fumei)

I haven ' t smoked for two years ( Eu não fumo ha dois anos)

Jennifer hasn ' t called me for two weeks (Jennifer não me telefona ha duas semanas)

Other uses – Outros usos

1 - When there is a connection with the present.
 
Quando ha uma ligação com o presente

                        I ' ve lost my wallet ( I don ' t have it with me now )

                        Perdi minha carteira (Não a tenho comigo agora)

                        Jennifer has gone to Italy ( she is there now )

                        Jennifer foi para a Italia (ela está lá agora)

                        Have you cleaned you room ? ( is it clean now ? )

                        Voce limpou meu quarto? (ele está limpo agora?)

 2 - To talk about a recent happening , or to add new information.

Para falar sobre um acontecimento recente,ou adicionar nova informação

I ' ve lost my wallet . Can you help me to find it ? 
Perdi minha carteira. Pode me ajudar a acha-la?

Do you know about Jennifer ? She ' s gone to Italy.

Sabe da Jennifer? Ela foi para a Italia.

 

3 - To say that something  happened a short time ago , or before the expected time.

Para dizer que algo aconteceu ha pouco tempo, ou antes do  tempo esperado.

Can I buy you a snack ? - No thank you , I ' ve just had lunch ( short time ago )

Posso lhe pagar um lanche?- Não,obrigado. Acabei de almoçar.

Is David going to start his new work soon ? He has already started !( before the expected )

David vai começar no novo trabalho logo? Ele já começou. (antes do tempo esperado)

Time expressions like : ever , never , already , before , yet , recently , are often used when  the time is not  specified

Quando o tempo não é especificado geralmente se usa expressões como : ever, never, already, before..etc.

I ' ve never studied a thing like this                     She ' s already done her homework

 Charles has recently bought a new car               We ' ve been to New York before

 Jennifer hasn ' t gone to USA yet

                                  

We use the present perfect with : this morning , this evening , today , this week , this year etc .
 when these periods have not finished at the time of speaking.

Usamos o present perfect com: esta manhã, esta noite, hoje, esta semana, este ano etc. 
quando estes periodos não se encerraram no momento da fala.

I ' ve read three newspaper today ( maybe I read more before the day finishes )

Li três jornais hoje( talvez eu leia mais antes do fim do dia)

They ' ve danced a lot this evening

Eles dançaram muito esta noite (talvez dancem mais)

David hasn ' t studied very much this year          

David não estudou muito este ano( talvez ele estude menos ainda)

It is the second time Jennifer has phoned David this morning
É a segunda vez que Jennifer telefona esta manhã (talvez ela telefone de novo)



PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS 
( I HAVE BEEN DOING )
Também chamado Present Perfect Progressive.

 It 's formed by : HAVE / HAS + BEEN + MAIN VERB + ING

Formado com: Have/Has + Been + verbo principal + ing

The streets are wet because it has been raining ( rain )

As ruas estão molhadas porque esteve chovendo

I need to learn English , so I have been studying hard ( study )

Preciso aprender Inglês, então tenho estudado duramente.

             Use of this tense – uso deste tempo

The Present Perfect continuous is used to indicate an action that began in the past and  has just stopped , or that continues till now.

Este tempo é usado para indicar uma ação que  começou no passado e que acbou de parar, ou continua até agora.

 We also use this tense to say , or ask , how long something has been happening.

Também se usa para perguntar há quanto tempo algo esta acontecendo.

 a) You are looking tired . Have you been running ? ( you just stopped running )

 Voce esta parecendo cansado. Voce esteve correndo ?

 b) I ' ve been talking to Jennifer about you .

 Eu estive falando com Jennifer sobre você.

c) How long have you been learning English ?           

Ha quanto tempo voce tem estudado Inglês?

d) The Clintons have been living in New York since January
Os Clintons estão morando ( ou tem morado )  em New York desde Janeiro.

 The negative , interrogative and contracted forms follow the same model as those of the Present Perfect

O negativo, interrogativo e formas contraidas seguem o mesmo modelo que o Present Perfect.

 

pronoun

affirmative

negative

interrogative

I

have been living

have not been living

have I been living ?

YOU

have been living

have not been living

have you been living ?

HE,SHE,IT

has been living

has not been living

has (he,she,it) been living?

WE

have been living

have not been living

have we been living ?

YOU

have been living

have not been living

have you been living ?

THEY

have been living

have not been living

have they been living ?

INTERROGATIVE - NEGATIVE forms

extended

contracted

have I not been living ?

   haven ' t I been living ?

have you not been living ?

   haven ' t you been living ?

has ( he,she,it ) not been living ?

   hasn ' t ( he,she,it ) been living ?

have we not been living ?

   haven ' t we been living ?

have you not been living ?

   haven ' t you been living ?

have they not been living ?

   haven ' t they been living /

            The contracted forms are normally used for everyday conversation



PAST PERFECT
( I HAD LIVED )

It's formed by : HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE of main verb

Formado com: Had + Participio passado do verbo principal.

When I arrived at the airport , the plane had already gone (go)

Quando cheguei ao aeroporto , o avião ja tinha partido.

 I arrived late to the theater . The play had finished minutes before ( finish )

 Eu cheguei tarde ao teatro .  A peça terminara minutos antes

Use of this tense  - uso deste tempo

The Past Perfect is used to indicate an action , or state , that happened before an other action in the past 
or that continued till a certain moment in the past.

O Past Perfect é usado para indicar uma ação, ou estado, que aconteceu antes de uma outra ação no passado
ou que continuou ate certo momento no passado.

When I arrived at the airport , the plane had already gone away.
Quando eu cheguei ao aeroporto , o avião já tinha ido embora.

It was David's  first time in an airplane . He was nervous because he hadn ' t flown before
Era a primeira vez de David em um avião. Ele estava nervoso porque nunca tinha voado antes. 

The past perfect ( I had done ) is the past of the present perfect ( I have done ) compare :

 O past Perfect é o passado do Present Perfect. Compare:   

 The car is dirty . I haven' t washed it for weeks ( present )
O carro esta sujo . Eu não o tenho lavado ha semanas.          

The car was dirty . I hadn ' t washed it for weeks ( past )
O carro estava sujo . Eu não o tinha lavado ha semanas.

 With words like after , before , when , as soon as , is frequently used the Simple Past 
but the  Past Perfect is used to specify that  the second action happened after the first was ended
.
Com as palvras acima geralmente é geralmente usado o Past Simple
 mas o Past Perfect é usado para especificar que uma segunda ação aconteceu depois que a primeira terminou.

Examples:

After the plane left , we went back home
Depois que o avião partiu , nós voltamos para casa.

After the plane had left , we went back home.
Depois que o avião tinha partido , nós voltamos para casa.

These are the normal forms- estas são as formas normais

pronoun

affirmative

negative

interrogative

interrog-negative

I

  had lived

  had not lived

  had I lived ?

  had I not lived ?

YOU

  had lived

  had not lived

  had you lived ?

  had you not lived ?

HE,SHE.IT

  had lived

  had not lived

  had ( he,she it ) lived ?

  had( he,she,it) not lived ?

WE

  had lived

  had not lived

  had we lived ?

  had we not lived ?

YOU

  had lived

  had not lived

  had you lived ?

  had you not lived ?

THEY

  had lived

  had not lived

  had they lived ?

  had they not lived ?

 As it happens with all the other tenses , the contracted forms are normally used in the  everyday conversation .

Como acontece com todos os outros tempos, as formas contraidas são mais usadas no dia a dia.

These are the contracted forms Estas são as formas contraídas.

affirmative

negative

interrogative - negative

   I ' d lived

   I hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't I lived ?

   you ' d lived

   you hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't you lived ?

   he ' d lived

   he hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't he lived ?

   she ' d lived

   she hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't she lived ?

   it ' d lived

   it hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't it lived ?

   we ' d lived

   we hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't we lived ?

   you ' d lived

   you hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't you lived ?

   they ' d lived

   they hadn ' t lived

             hadn 't they lived ?

Compare these sentences –compare estas frases

 Was Jennifer there when you arrived ? No , she had already gone home ( Past Perfect )
Jennifer estava la quando voce chegou ? Não , ela ja tinha ido para casa
.

 Was Jennifer there when you arrived ? Yes , but she went home soon afterwards ( Simple Past )
Jennifer estava la quando voce chegou? Sim . mas ela foi para casa logo depois.

David wasn' t home when I phoned him . He was in Los Angeles ( Simple past )
David não estava em casa quando eu lhe telefonei . Ele estava em Los Angeles.

David had just got home when I phoned him . He had been in Los Angeles ( Past Perfect )
David tinha acabado de chegar em casa quando eu telefonei . Ele tinha estado em Los Angeles )

In the examples above , you can see the different use of the Past Perfect and the Simple Past.
 Even in Portuguese the meaning of each use is different ,  OK?

Nos exemplos acima voce ve o uso diferente do Past Perfect e do Simple Past.
 Mesmo em português o significado é diferente,ok?


PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS ( I HAD BEEN DOING )
Também chamado Past Perfect Progressive

IT'S FORMED BY : HAD + BEEN + MAIN VERB + ING

Formado com: Had + Been + Verbo principal + ing

The boy came home with a black eye . He had been fighting
O menino veio para casa com um olho preto. Ele tinha estado brigando.

The sun was shining but the ground was wet. It had been raining
O sol estava brilhando mas o chão estava molhado . Tinha estado chovendo, ou,  estivera chovendo.

Use of the Past Perfect progressiveuso do Past Perfect Progressive

We can use this tense to say how long something had been happening before something else happened.

Note : The past perfect progressive is the past of the present perfect progressive

Podemos usar este tempo para dizer ha quanto tempo algo esteve acontecndo antes que outra coisa acontecesse.

Her room 's color is different . She has been painting it ( Pres. Perf. Progressive )
A cor da sala dela esta diferente . Ela a tem pintado.

Her room ' s color was different . She had been painting it .( Past perf. Progressive )
A cor da sala dela estava diferente . Ela tinha estado pintando.

These are the normal formsestas são as formas normais

pronoun

 affirmative

negative

interrogative

I

  had been living

  had not been living

     had I been living?

you

  had been living

  had not been living

     had you been living?

he,she,it

  had been living

  had not been living

     had (he,she,it) been living

we

  had been living

  had not been living

     had we been living ?

you they

  had been living

  had not been living

     had you been living?

 

  had been living

  had not been living

     had they been living ?

These are the contracted formsestas são as formas contraídas

negative

    interrog.negative

   I hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't I been living ?

   you hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't you been living ?

   he hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't he been living ?

   she hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't she been living ?

   it hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't it been living ?

   we hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't we been living ?

   you hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't you been living ?

   they hadn ' t been living

         hadn 't they been living ?

            The contracted forms are normally used in the everyday conversation


FUTURE

The future is formed in two ways :
O futuro é formado de dois modos

 1- Using WILL + main verb ( without TO )
 2- Using BE GOING TO + Main verb ( without TO)

1- Usando WILL + Verbo Principal (sem a particulaTO)   
2- usando Be going to + Verbo principal.

Examples :

 1- I left the door open. I will go and shut it.

 Deixei a porta aberta . Irei fecha-la.

2- I need to improve my English . I am going to study harder.

Preciso aperfeiçoar meu Ingles . Vou estudar com mais afinco [ mais "duramente "] )

 Use of these constructions uso destas construções

We use WILL to express an action that we believe will happen in the future ,
 or to talk about decisions we make in the moment of speaking.

Usamos WILL para expressar uma ação que acreditamos que acontecerá no futuro,
ou para falar de decisões que tomamos no momemto da fala.

I think David will help me with this work.

Acho que David ira ajudar-me com este trabalho.

The house is dirty , you need to clean it .OK, I will do it tomorrow.
A casa esta suja, voce precisa limpa-la . OK , farei isso amanhã.

 We use BE GOING TO when we talk about future actions that are already programmed.
Usamos Be going to quando falamos sobre ações futures que ja estão programadas.

I know the house was dirty.I am going to clean it tomorrow.
Eu sei que a casa esta suja. Vou limpa-la amanhã.

 We often use WILL in these situations:-  geralmente usamos WILL nestas situações:

a)Promising to do something prometendo fazer algo.

I will phone you next week .                             I will not tell anyone what you said to me
Telefonarei a voce semana que vem                 Não direi a ninguem o que me disse.

 b) Offering to do something – oferecendo para fazer algo:

 If you need money I will lend you some- Se precisar de dinheiro lhe emprestarei algum.

Your bag is too heavy.I will help you –Esta sacola é muito pesada. Vou ajuda-lo.

 c) Agreeing or refusing something – concordando ou recusando algo.

 Can you give me back my book ? OK,I will bring it back today.
Pode devolver meu livro?- Ok, vou traze-lo hoje.

I asked David to help me , but he will not.
Pedi a David para me ajudar,mas ele não o fará.

The car will not start ( It "refuses " to start ).
O carro não funcionará (ele ”se recusa” a pegar)

d) Asking someone to do something pedindo a alguem para fazer algo:

 Will you shut the door please ?

Will you turn down the radio , please ? I am studying.

In general when we " predict " the future we use WILL ,
 and when we intend to do  something in the future we use BE GOING TO

Em geral quando “predizemos” o futuro usamos WILL e,
 quando planejamos fazer algo no futuro usamos  BE GOING TO.

These are the normal forms estas são as formas normais.

 affirmative

negative

     interrogative

interrog.negative

    I will live

   i will not live

   will i live ?

will I not live ?

   you will live

   you will not live

   will you live ?

will you not live ?

   he will live

   he will not live

   will he live ?

will he not live ?

   she will live

   she will not live

   will she live ?

will she not live ?

   it will live

   it will not live

   will it live ?

will it not live ?

   we will live

   we will not live

   will we live ?

will we not live ?

   you will live

   you will not live

   will you live ?

will you not live ?

   they will live

   they will not live

   will they live ?

will they not live ?

Here are the contracted formsaqui estão as formas contraidas

negative

interrog.negative

   I won ' t live

        won 't I live ?

   you won ' t live

        won 't you live ?

   he won ' t live

        won 't he live ?

   she won ' t live

        won 't she live ?

   it won ' t live

        won 't it live ?

   we won ' t live

        won 't we live ?

   you won ' t live

        won 't you live ?

   they won ' t live

        won 't they live ?


GOING TO FUTURE ( Future with GOING TO )

We use GOING TO  when we talk about programmed actions.

Usamos o futuro com “Going to” quando falamos de ações programadas.
Sempre lembrando que usamos nos exemplos o verbo "Live" , mas com os outros verbos é a mesma coisa.

These are the normal forms – eis as formas normais

affirmative

negative

interrogative

   I am going to live

   I am not going to live

 am I going to live ?

   you are going to live

   you are not going to live

 are you going to live ?

   he is going to live

   he is not going to live

 is he going to live ?

   she is going to live

   she is not going to live

 is she going to live ?

   it is going to live

   it is not going to live

 is it going to live ?

   we are going to live

   we are not going to  live

 are we going to live ?

   you are going to live

   you are not going to live

 are you going to live ?

   they are going to live

   they are not going to live

 are they going to live ?

The other forms are : as outras formas são:

interrogative negative

contracted affirmative

contracted negative

   am I not going to live ?

       I ' m going to live

I ' m not going to live

   are you not going to live ?

      you ' re going to live

you ' re not going to live

   is he not going to live ?

      he ' s going to live

he ' s not going to live

   is she not going to live ?

      she '   s going to live

she ' s not going to live

   is it not going to live ?

       it ' s going to live

it ' s not going to live

   are we not going to live ?

      we ' re going to live

we ' re not going to  live

   are you not going to live ?

      you ' re going to live

you ' re not going to live

   are they not going to live ?

     they  ' re going to live

they ' re not going to live

 



FUTURE CONTINUOUS  ( I WILL BE DOING )

Também chamado Future Progressive

It 's formed by : WILL + BE + MAIN VERB + ING

Formado com Will + BE + Verbo principal + ing

At this time tomorrow , he will be working.
A esta hora amanhã , ele estara trabalhando.

David will be living in New York next year.
David estara morando em New York , no ano que vem.

 Use of this tense – uso deste tempo

1 - We use the Future Continuous  to say that we will be doing something at a certain time in the  future.

Usamos este tempo para dizer que estaremos fazendo algo em certo tempo no futuro.

a) The movie begins at 8:00 and ends at 9:30 . So , at 8:30 I will be watching the movie.
O filme começa as 8:00 h  e termina as 9:30h. Então as 8:30 estarei assistindo ao filme.

b) David works from 9:00 am to 5:00 p.m. . Tomorrow at 1:00 p.m. he will be working
David trabalha das 9 as 17 horas.Amanhã a 1 da tarde ele estara trabalhando.

2 - We can use this tense to talk about something we have already planned and decided

Podemos usar este tempo para falar sobre algo decicido previamente.           

a) I will be going downtown tomorrow . Can I get you anything ?
Irei ao centro da cidade amanhã. Posso lhe trazer algo ?

3- We can use this tense to ask about people's plans

Podemos usar este tempo para perguntar sobre os planos das pesoas.

a) Will you be using your car tonight ? No, you can take it .
Voce usará o carro hoje á noite< Não, pode leva-lo

b) Will you be passing the post office when you go out ? If so , please mail these letters for me.
Voce vai passar em frente ao correio? Se passar, por favor emvie estas cartas por mim.

The normal formsas formas normais

affirmative

           negative

interrogative

    I will be living

   I will not be living

will I be living ?

   you will be living

   you will not be living

will you be living ?

   he,she,it will be living

   he,she,it will be living

will he,she,it be living ?

   we will be living

   we will be living

will we be living ?

   you will be living

   you will be living

will you be living ?

   they will be living

   they will be living

will they be living ?

 Other formsoutras formas

interrogative negative

contracted negative

contrac,inter. negative

will I be not living ?

I won 't be living

won 't I be living ?

will you be not living?

you won 't be living

won 't you be living ?

will he,she,it be not living?

he,she,it won 't be living

won 't he,she,it be living ?

will we be not living ?

we won 't be living

won 't we be living ?

will you be not living ?

you won 't be living

won 't you be living ?

will they be not living ?

they won 't be living

won 't they be living ?

            The contracted forms are normally used in the everyday conversation


FUTURE PERFECT (I WILL HAVE LIVED)
 It's formed by :
WILL + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB 
Formado com: Will+Have+past participle do verbo principal

 Use of this tense – uso deste tempo

The Future Perfect is used to express an action that will happen before another action in the future

O future Perfect é usado para expressar uma ação que acontecerá antes de uma outra ação no futuro.

            EXAMPLES :

I will have left before Alice arrives.
Eu terei partido antes de Alice chegar.

I will have finished my homework by noon.
Terei terminado minha lição antes do meio dia.

            These are the normal forms -estas são as formas normais

pronoun

affirmative

negative

interrogative

I

will have lived

will not have lived

will i have lived ?

you

will have lived

will not have lived

will you have lived ?

he,she,it

will have lived

will not have lived

will ( he,she,it ) have lived?

we

will have lived

will not have lived

will we have lived ?

you

will have lived

will not have lived

will you have lived ?

they

will have lived

will not have lived

will they have lived ?

 

 interrogative.negative

will I not have lived ?

will you not have lived ?

will ( he,she,it ) not have lived ?

will we not have lived ?

will you not have lived ?

will they not have lived ?

Here are the contracted formsaqui estão as formas contraidas

affirmative

negative

interrogative negative

I 'll have lived

I won 't have lived

won ' t I have lived ?

you ' ll have lived

you won 't have lived

won ' t you have lived ?

he ' ll have lived

he won 't have lived

won ' t he have lived ?

she ' ll have lived

she won 't have lived

won ' t she have lived ?

it ' ll have lived

it won 't have lived

won ' t it have lived ?

we ' ll have lived

we won 't have lived

won ' t we have lived ?

you 'll have lived

you won 't have lived

won ' t you have lived ?

they ' ll have lived

they won 't have lived

won ' t they have lived ?

The contracted forms are normally used in the conversation


FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS  ( I WILL HAVE BEEN DOING )

Também chamado Future Perfect Progressive

It's formed by : WILL + HAVE BEEN + VERB + ING

Formado com: Will+Have Been+ verbo+ ing

  Use of this tense – uso deste tempo

We use this tense to express actions like those expressed by the Future Perfect Simple , 
but this tense emphasizes the continuation of the action.

Usamos este tempo para expressar ações como aquelas expressas pelo Future Perfect Simple, 
mas este tempo enfatiza a continuação de uma ação.

 EXAMPLES :

We will have been living in New York for five years next week
Nos teremos estado vivendo em New York por cinco anos na semana que vem.

By 10 o'clock I will have been reading this book for about three hours
Pelas 10 horas eu terei lido este livro por cerca de tres horas.

These are the normal formsestas são as formas normais

pronoun

affirmative

negative

I

will have been living

will not have been living

you

will have been living

will not have been living

he,she,it

will have been living

will not have been living

we

will have been living

will not have been living

you

will have been living

will not have been living

they

will have been living

will not have been living

   

          interrogative

      interrogative negative

will I have been living ?

will iInot have been living ?

will you have been living ?

will you not have been living ?

will ( he,she,it ) have been living ?

will (he,she,it ) not have been living ?

will we have been living ?

will we not have been living ?

will you have been living ?

will you not have been living ?

will they have been living ?

will they not have been living ?

The contracted forms are : as formas contraidas são:

               negative

     interrogative - negative

I won ' t have been living

won ' t I have been living ?

you won ' t have been living

won ' t you have been living ?

he won ' t have been living

won ' t he have been living ?

she won ' t have been living

won ' t she have been living ?

it won ' t have been living

won ' t it have been living ?

we won ' t have been living

won ' t we have been living ?

you won ' t have been living

won ' t you have been living ?

they won ' t have been living

won ' t they have been living ?

            The contracted forms are always preferred in the conversation


IMPERATIVE

Formed by : Infinitive without the particle TO


We form the negative with DO NOT or DON 'T + INFINITIVE

Formado com: Infitive sem a particular TO

Formamos o negativo com Do not (ou Don’t) + Infinitive

EXAMPLES :
GO AWAY ( Vá embora )                      COME IN ( entre)
DON 'T GO AWAY ( não va embora )      DON 'T COME IN (não entre )

             Uses of the Imperative

a) To give an order – para dar uma ordem:
     Leave now ! ( saia agora )  Don ' t smoke in the restaurant

b) To make an invitation or to offer something –
 
para fazer um convite, ou oferecer algo:

         Sit down , please ( Sente-se por favor )

          Have a cup of tea !
( Tome uma xicara de chá)

c) To give an advice or a warning – dar um conselho ou aviso:
       Don ' t  drink and drive . It could kill you ( Não beba e dirija.
Isso poderia mata-lo )
       
Watch your step . Be careful . ( Olhe onde pisa . Seja cuidadoso )

 d) To ask someone to do something – para pedir a alguem para fazer algo:
      Turn off the lights , when you leave , please ( apague as luzes ao sair ,por favor )
      Please , lend me your car for today ( Por favor empreste-me seu carro por hoje )



THE PASSIVE VOICE

A voz passiva

 It's formed by : BE (or GET ) + PAST PARTICIPLE OF MAIN VERB

 To give the correct structure to the passive voice , we need to use BE or GET in the same tense of the active voice , plus the Past Participle of the main verb from the active sentence .
 The object of the active will be always the subject of the passive voice.

 The agent of the passive voice , that is the subject of the active ,is introduced by the preposition BY

É formada com: BE ou GET + Past participle do verbo principal

Para dar a estrutura correta da voz passiva, precisamos usar BE ou GET no mesmo tempo da voz ativa,
mais o past participle do verbo principal da sentença de voz ativa.
O objeto da voz ativa sera sempre o sujeito da voz passiva.
O agente da voz passiva, que é o sujeito da ativa, é introduzido pela preposição BY.

EXAMPLES :

            1. He keeps the car here  ( Ele mantem o carro aqui ) [ Active ]

            The car is kept here ( by him ) ( O carro é mantido aqui ( por ele )) [ Passive ] 

            2. A thief stole my car ( Um ladrão roubou meu carro ) [ Active ]

            My car was stolen ( by a thief ) ( Meu carro foi roubado ( por um ladrão ) [ Passive ]

            3. David broke my watch ( David quebrou meu relogio ) [ Active ]

           My watch was broken by David ( meu relogio foi quebrado por David ) [ Passive ]

 When there is a material agent , it is introduced by the preposition WITH

Quando existe agente material ele é introduzido pela preposição WITH.

            1. Smoke filled the whole building [ Active ]

            The whole building was filled with smoke [ Passive ]

            2. Blood covered  the injured soldier [ Active ]

            The injured soldier was covered with blood [ Passive ]          

            Uses of the Passive Voice

a)      When the agent off the action is not known

Quando o agente da ação não é conhecido:
             David was killed last week ( David foi morto a semana passada )
             Tom 's bike got stolen yesterday  ( A bicicleta de Tom foi roubada ontem )

b) To emphasize the action itself para enfatizar a ação em si.
           The thief got caught ( O ladrão foi preso )

              David ' s motorcycle was damaged by a bus ( A moto de David foi danificada por um onibus)

b)      When the agent is clear trough the context
Quando o agente é claro através do contexto.

Silence must be kept ( O silencio deve ser mantido )

 When the sentence has both , direct and indirect objects , we can have two versions of  the passive voice.
Quando a sentença tem abos os objetos, direto e indireto, podemos ter duas versões da voz passiva.

            Someone gave Jennifer a new dress [ Active ]

            A new dress was given to Jennifer [ Passive 1 ]

            Jennifer was given a new dress [ Passive 2 ]

            They told David the real facts [ Active ]

            The real facts were told to David [ Passive 1 ]

            David was told the real facts [ Passive 2 ]

CORRESPONDENCE TABLE
TABELA DE CORRESPONDENCIA

verb tense

active voice

passive voice

simple present

Icall

I am called

present continuous

I am calling

I am being called

simple past

I called

I was called

past continuous

I was calling

I was being called

present perfect

I have called

I have been called

present perfect

I have been called

I have been being called

past perfect

I had called

I had been called

past perfect

I had been called

I had been being called (see note )

future

I will call

I will be called

future continuous

I will be calling

I will be being called ( see note )

future perfect

I will have called

I will have been called

fut. perf. continuous

I will have been calling

I will have been being called ( note)

  NOTE : These form are not used very often
Estas formas não são usadas com muita freqüência.

How are the verb tenses formed ?
Como são formados os tempos verbais?

With regular verbs it 's very simple.-
  com verbos regulares é muito simples

 Just take out the particle TO and add ED to the verb:

Apenas retire a partícula TO e acrescente ED ao verbo.

 

infinitive

past tense

past participle

   to love

   loved

        loved

   to work

   worked

        worked

   to live

   lived

        lived

   to arrive

   arrived

        arrived


With the irregular verbs there's no rule , and there are two ways to know the three main tenses:

Com verbos irregulares não ha regras e ha dois jeitos de saber os três tempos básicos:

a)      You can find the verb in the dictionary . It gives you the three tenses of irregular verbs.

Voce pode encontrar no dicionário. Ele da os tres tempos básicos de verbos irregulares.

            Examples : Drink / drank / drunk = beber / bebi / bebido

                               Shut / shut / shut = fechar / fechei / fechado

                               Eat / ate / eaten = comer / comi / comido

                               Wear / wore / worn = Usar / usei / usado

As you can see some irregular verbs have two forms , others have three forms , and others have   the same form for the three tenses . 

Como se vê alguns verbos irregulares tem duas formas, outros três formas e alguns tem a mesma forma em todos os tempos. Por isso:

b)o outro jeito é ter á mão uma lista de verbos irregulares Veja a pagina Verbs in English 



The construction of the most used verb tenses

A construção dos tempos mais usados.
 

VERB TENSE

CONSTRUCTION

PORTUGUESE EQUIVALENCE

simple present

I live , he/she lives

eu moro / que eu more / se eu morar

present progressive

To BE + verb + ING

estou morando / que / se eu estiver morando

simple past

verb + ED ( exceto irreg . )

morei / morava / se eu morasse

past progressive

To Be + verb + ING

estive morando / estava morando / se eu estivesse morando

present perfect

To Have + past participle ofthe main verb

moro / morei / tenho morado / que eu tenha morado / se eu tiver morado

present perfect progressive

Have + Been + verb + ING

moro / tenho morado / tenho estado morando / se eu estiver morando

past perfect

Had+ past participle of main verb

morara / tinha morado / se eu tivesse morado

past perfect progressive

Had + Been + verb + ING

estivera morando / tinha estado morando /tinha morado

future progressive

Will + Be + verb + ING

estarei morando

future perfect

Will + Have + past participle of main verb

terei morado

future perfect progressive

Will + Have + verb + ING

terei estado morando / terei morado

 

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